Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) need to be controlled down to extremely low levels in water. From the Water Framework Directive (WFD), the aim is to have limits of detection for certain OCPs at 10 fg/l for surface and coastal water.
Selected Ion Flow Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) is a form of direct mass spectrometry that uses precisely controlled soft ionisation to enable real-time, quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, typically at detection limits of parts-per-trillion level (by volume; pptv).
Manual sample preparation remains a common approach to many analytical pharmaceutical methods today. This is due to the complexity of performing vigorous mixing and ultrasonication.